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Baswa-Bandiqui, Dausa District, Rajasthan
Background Information
The area has a dry climate and the relative humidity is generally low, except during the south-west monsoon season. The mean annual rainfall is around 620 mm.
Total annual potential evapotranspiration is around 1740 mm. The potential evapotranspiration is highest (257.4mm) in the month of May and lowest (67.0 mm) in the month of December. It is observed that potential evapotranspiration is more than rainfall in all the months except in July and August. Therefore, ground recharge is possible only during the peak period of monsoon.
Bandikui Watershed forms part of East Rajasthan upland. It is a part of the Aravalli hill system. In general, the watershed has low land topography and sheet and gully erosion of moderate to severe order.
The watershed consists of fairly open undulating plain with hillocks in the northern and north-eastern parts. The altitude ranges from 250 to 589 m in the north-eastern part of the watershed with north to south and west to east slope. The northern part of the watershed is characterized by structurally controlled NNE-SSW & NNW-SSE trending hill ranges. Escarpments are common and the high dips and the nature of rocks are responsible for the formation of escarpments. Altitudes range from 250 to 273 m in the southern part with north west to south east slope.
The area is bounded by the Banganga river in the south. Its tributaries are Sanwan Nadi and Palasan Nadi, which flow in the area mostly from west to east. These are non-perennial in nature and flow during monsoon period only.
Geomorphic units of structural origin, viz., ridges and valleys, are confined to hilly terrain and mostly lie in the north eastern boundary of the watershed and in scattered isolated parts in northern western part.
Figure 4.6: Structural hills in the northern part of watershed.
Geomorphic units of fluvial origin, viz., undulating alluvial plains, are spread over the major part of the watershed. These plains are big and form a large monotonous landscape with fairly thick alluvial cover and bad-land (ravines) topography in the central and southern part of the watershed and in isolated pockets towards east of Dausa.
Figure 4.7: Bad-land topography in the central part of the watershed.
Geomorphic units of Aeolian origin, viz., Barchan Dunes, occur in the northern part towards west of Bandikui. Obstacle dunes occur all along west of hill ranges running and trending in NE-SW direction in the south eastern margin of the district and sand sheet are found in the southern part of the district.
Geomorphic units of denudational origin, viz., piedmont zone, are found at foot hills at two places along the extreme south east periphery of the district.
Figure 4.8: Geomorphology of Baswa – Bandikui watershed.
The eastern and southern parts of the watershed are covered by Older Alluvium. The central and northern parts are occupied by Red Soil and a small part of the watershed is covered by Red Gravelly soil.
Recharge to the ground water system depends on the infiltration characteristics of the soil cover. Soil Infiltration tests have been carried out, using double-ring infiltrometer, at several places in different hydrogeological conditions, to study varied infiltration characteristics of soils in the watershed. The rates of infiltration vary from 0.02 to 0.20 cm / min.
Figure 4.9: Infiltration rate of soil.
Figure 4.10: Double-ring infiltration test in Baswa – Bandikui watershed, Rajasthan.
Land use
Land use in Baswa-Bandikui watershed, Dausa district is as follows:
(in hectares)
Total geographical area Area not suitable for cultivation Forest Hills Barren land Tanks / ponds Area under cultivation Area irrigated by wells Total Irrigated Area
59800 5892 378 4865 242 407 33662 19122 19122
Source: Agriculture statistics, 2002-03, Rajasthan Stat
The general geological succession in the district is as follows:
Era/Period Rank Lithology
Quaternary Recent to sub-recent Alluvium, Sand, Silt, Gravel, Clay, kankar and wind blown sand
Proterozoic Delhi Ajabgarh Super Group Schists, Phyllites, Marble and Quartzites
  Ajabgarh Alwar Group Quartzites, Conglomerates & Schists.
Archaean Bhilwara Super Group Gneisses, Schists and Migmatites
The major part of the watershed is covered by a low to moderately thick Quaternary Alluvium comprising sand, silt, gravel, clay, kankar, and windblown sand. The alluvial cover is thin in the western part of the area and increases towards east, where it attains a maximum about 90m. In Bandikui area, the thickness of the alluvial cover is 45 to 61 m bgl.
The basement underlying the alluvium comprises schist, phyllite, marble, dolomite, quartzite, conglomerate, granite gneiss, and migmatites. Basement rocks are exposed towards west of the area and the basement depth increases towards east up to 90 m. Basement depth goes down to 50 m towards north as well as south of the area, thus forming a small basin.
Figure 4.11: Geology of Baswa – Bandikui watershed, Dausa district, Rajasthan.