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Parts of Thar Desert, Rajasthan
 
Introduction
The Ramgadh area in Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, is a typical area representing arid desert conditions.
The key groundwater management issues are the following:
The area suffers from very low rainfall which is the main source for ground water.
The ground water is contaminated with fluoride and salinity.
The unconsolidated and semi-consolidated formations form the main aquifer system in this area. The aquifers are located at deeper levels with deep ground water levels especially in the southern part of the study area.
The methodology developed for mapping aquifers in the area can be replicated in other arid zones of Rajasthan and in other areas of similar environment.
AQUIFER MAPPING PROJECT IN JAISALMER DISTRICT, RAJASTHAN
  Assessment Unit Block  
  Name / Code Sam Block  
  Area 675 sq.km  
  District Jaisalmer  
  Taluk / Block Sam  
  No. of Towns / Villages    
  Approx. population in the Taluks Rural :
Urban :
 
Figure 5.1: Aerial view of study area.
 
  Normal Annual Rainfall 181.2 mm  
  River Basin Indus (sub-basin : Barmer)  
  Major rivers / streams Nil  
  Geology Quaternary Alluvium underlain by Sandstones of Tertiary and Mesozoic.  
  Hydrogeology Groundwater occurs under unconfined to confined conditions in Quaternary Alluvium and in the underlying sedimentary rocks.  
  Aquifers Sand layers in alluvium and clay-free beds & fractured zones in sedimentary rocks.  
Figure 5.2: Schematic views of the aquifer systems in the area.
       
  Depth to water table (Min. / Max.)
(m below ground level)
Min. : 30 m Max. : >100 m  
  Stage of ground water development 60 %  
  Groundwater quality The area suffers from fluoride contamination and salinity at places.  
  Major issues - Deep aquifers with deep water levels
- Fluoride contamination and salinity at places
 
  Methodology of study Hydrogeology, integrated multiple geophysical surveys (including Heliborne survey), exploratory drilling and aquifer simulation.  
  Expected outcomes of aquifer mapping Map of alluvial and sedimentary aquifers, location of fresh water aquifers, interface of fresh and saline ground waters, optimal fresh ground water yield from wells.  
  Geographical applicability of the methodology Desert areas in other parts of Rajasthan and similar areas with Arid conditions.