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Parts of Tumkur District, Karnataka
 
Introduction
The watershed in Tumkur District, Karnataka, is characteristic of crystalline rocks of Karnataka.
The key groundwater management issues are the following:
Over abstraction of groundwater from shallow aquifers, leading to falling water level and drying up of wells (more than 2800 wells have dried up in the District). The stage of groundwater development is 158%.
Substantial water resources could be held in deeper fractures but the delineation of fracture zones is a major challenge.
The methodology developed for mapping aquifers in the area can be replicated in hard rocks areas of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
 
AQUIFER MAPPING PROJECT IN KARNATAKA
  Assessment Unit Watershed  
  Area 376 sq.km / 37600 ha  
  District Tumkur  
  Taluk / Block Chiknayakanhalli, Tiptur  
  No. of Towns / Villages 2 / 141  
  Approx. population in the Taluks Rural : 3.5 lakh (for the two blocks)
Urban : 0.75 lakh (for the two blocks)
 
Figure 2.1: Aerial view of area.
 
  Normal Annual Rainfall 670 to 680 mm  
  River Basin Part of Vedavati sub-basin, Krishna basin  
  Major rivers / streams Tore Halla stream  
  Geology Peninsular gneissic complex. Granite, Gneiss Schist, and Pegmatite with basic dyke intrusives.  
  Hydrogeology Groundwater occurs in the weathered zones and fracture zones, under unconfined to confined conditions.  
  Aquifers Saturated weathered zones and fractures.  
Figure 2.2: Schematic view of aquifers in hard rock terrains.
 
  Land use - cultivated area 52-63%,
- forest area 4%
- rest is barren and/or used for human activities.
 
  Depth to water table (Min. / Max.) 2 to 48 m below ground level
Pre-monsoon : up to 48 m
Post-monsoon : up to 20 m
 
  Ground water level trend Annual : declining trend  
Figure 2.3: Depth to water level, post-monsoon.
 
  Stage of ground water development 158%  
  Groundwater quality Potable  
  Major issues Drying up of shallow aquifers due to overexploitation.  
  Methodology of study Integration of hydrogeology and multiple geophysical techniques to identify the aquifers.  
  Expected outcomes of aquifer mapping Weathered zone and fractured zone aquifer maps and their potentialities, areas for artificial recharge, aquifer-based management.  
  Geographical applicability of the methodology Hard rocks areas of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.