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Chandrabhaga Watershed , Nagpur District, Maharashtra
Background Information
The climate of the watershed is characterized by a hot summer and general dryness throughout the year, except during the south-west monsoon season, i.e., June to September. The mean minimum temperature is around 12°C and the mean maximum temperature is more than 45°C.
The analysis of rainfall data of Katol rain gauge station, which is the nearest station, indicates that the normal annual rainfall in the watershed is about 985 mm, with the following distribution:
839 mm in June to Sept. (SW monsoon)
72 mm in Sept. to Dec. (NE monsoon)
73 mm in Jan. to May (non-monsoon)
The long-term rainfall analysis shows a declining trend of 0.61 mm/year.
The area is drained by tributaries of Chandrabahaga River viz., Saptadhara River and Mortham Nala. The drainage is dendritic with flow direction of main stream i.e., Chandrabhaga from west to east and its tributaries from south to north. The main stream ultimately joins the Kolar River, outside the watershed in the east.
There are 3 major water bodies in the area: Chandrabhaga Tank, Mortham Tank, and Kotwalbardi Tank.
Figure 3.8: Drainage map of the watershed.
The area has an undulating terrain with the highest elevation of around 509m in the north western part and the lowest of about 310m in the north eastern part. Almost the entire area of the watershed is a plateau with sporadic residual hills of basalt located in the northern, western and southern parts of the watershed.
Figure 3.9: Geomorphological map of the area.
The major part of the watershed is mainly occupied by clayey soil followed by clayey loamy observed along the northern fringe of the watershed.
Figure 3.10: Soil map.
Land use
The land use map of the watershed is shown below. A majority of the area is covered by agricultural land. The wasteland and forests are mostly observed in the western part of the watershed. The built up area is reflected wherever settlements have come up.
Figure 3.11: Land use map.
The major part of the area is occupied by Deccan trap basalt (more than 300 sq km). Deccan Traps comprise a number of near horizontal lava flows stacked one over the other. The top layer is generally weathered. Each flow presents alternate layering of vesicular & fractured basalt, hard & compact basalt followed by intertrappeans at places. Thickness of intertrappeans layers is up to 2m. The Deccan traps are underlain by Gondwana sediments.
Also, the Gondwanas are exposed as small patches in the north eastern part near Saoner, whilst in the central part they underlie a 150-160 m thick pile of basalts.
In the eastern most part of the area, the Deccan traps are underlain by granite gneisses.
Figure 3.12: Geological map showing lineaments.