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Watershed , Patna District, Bihar
The watershed in Patna District, Bihar, forms a part of the Gangetic plains underlain by immensely thick alluvial deposits.
The key groundwater management issues are the following:
Delineation of aquifers, the confining clay beds, and their precise spatial disposition.
Characterization of hydraulic properties of the aquifers and the confining clay beds.
Understanding how the aquifers are getting recharged and interact with surface water bodies.
Arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers.
  Assessment Unit Watershed  
  Name / Code Watershed GNDK013  
  Area 500 sq.km / 50000 ha  
  District Patna  
  Taluk / Block Bihta, Bikram, Danapur, Maner, Naubatpur, Patna Sadar, Phulwarisarif  
  Approx. population in the Blocks Rural : 10 lakh
Urban : 17.3 lakh
Figure 1.1: Google earth map of study area.
  Normal Annual Rainfall 1100 mm  
  River Basin Ganga River  
  Major rivers / streams River Ganga, Sone, Punpun and their tributaries  
  Geology Quaternary alluvium  
  Hydrogeology Within 200m depth explored, there are two main aquifers separated by a clay layer.  
  Aquifers Sand zones of various grain sizes.  
Figure 1.2: Schematic view of aquifer dispositions in Patna area.
  Depth to water table (Min. / Max.) 2 to 10 m below ground level
Pre-monsoon : up to 10 m
Post-monsoon : within 4 m
  Ground water level trend Annual : moderately falling trend  
  Stage of ground water development 60%  
  Groundwater quality Arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers  
Figure 1.3: Map of the parts where groundwater quality is affected.
  Major issues Arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers, locating safe ground water zones.  
  Methodology of study Integration of hydrogeology and multiple geophysical techniques.  
  Expected outcomes of aquifer mapping Shallow and deep aquifer maps, their potentiality and quality, and aquifer-based management.  
  Geographical applicability of the methodology Mostly alluvium plains of Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.