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Background
 
Aquifer Mapping by CGWB
As far as macro-level aquifer mapping is concerned, ongoing activities of CGWB have included the following (see CGWB, Annual report 2009-2010):
The entire country has been covered under systematic hydrogeological surveys to generate basic hydrogeological data. The Hydrogeological Map of India has been compiled based on hydrogeological data collected from field studies supported by exploratory drilling and data from other agencies on a 1:5 million scale in 1989 and on a 1:2 million scale in 2002. The Hydrogeological Map has been prepared based on International Hydrogeological Legend. The maps and atlases are available to the public. Printed copies are distributed among the State level stakeholders, Research and Academic institutes. The various major aquifer groups and their characteristics, including chemical quality, are depicted on these maps.
  In terms of regular aquifer mapping activities, CGWB carries out exploratory drilling for establishing subsurface aquifer geometry, evaluating aquifer parameters and collecting water samples. About 800 bore holes are drilled every year and so far more than 30,000 boreholes have been drilled by CGWB. Exploratory drilling is preceded by remote sensing studies and surface geophysical studies in hard rock areas. In sedimentary areas, boreholes are geophysically logged to precisely delineate the aquifers dispositions and to record variation in the quality of ground water.
  Ground water samples are analysed for evaluating the ground water quality and its suitability for various uses. More than 15000 samples are analyzed every year (see CGWB, 2010, Groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in India).
  For aquifer management, CGWB undertakes mathematical modeling studies of aquifers.
  An area of 150,000 km2 area is being covered every year under Ground Water Management Studies to study the changes in the groundwater regime over a period of time.
  With the support of on-going studies and intensification of data generation, CGWB has prepared paper maps and atlases showing the principal and major aquifers and the vulnerable areas on 1:250,000 scale for the entire country, by integrating geological data, existing hydrogeological maps and ground water exploration data from CGWB and state departments.
  Map of principal aquifer systems in India
 
  Source: CGWB, 2012. http://www.indiawaterportal.org/sites/indiawaterportal.org/files/aquifer-systems-of-india-cgwb-2012.pdf
   
CGWB has conducted a number of R&D projects in the past for aquifer mapping and characterization, some in collaboration with international agencies.
 
Example of a hydrogeological map, established under Canadian Assisted Groundwater Project, 1975.
Source: CGWB